A dental prophylaxis is a cleaning procedure performed to thoroughly clean the visible part of the tooth. If there is treatment needed below the gumline, that is usually a Periodontal treatment, NOT a dental prophylaxis. (Link to perio page) Prophylaxis is an important dental treatment for halting the progression of periodontal disease and gingivitis.
Periodontal disease and gingivitis occur when bacteria from plaque colonize on the gingival (gum) tissue, either above or below the gum line. These bacteria colonies cause serious inflammation and irritation which in turn produce a chronic inflammatory response in the body. As a result, the body begins to systematically destroy gum and bone tissue, making the teeth shift, become unstable, or completely fall out. The pockets between the gums and teeth become deeper and house more bacteria which may travel via the bloodstream and infect other parts of the body.
Reasons for prophylaxis/teeth cleaning
Prophylaxis is an excellent procedure to help keep the oral cavity in good health and also halt the progression of gum disease.
Here are some of the benefits of prophylaxis:
Tartar removal – Tartar (calculus) and plaque buildup, above gum line, can cause serious periodontal problems if left untreated. Even using the best brushing and flossing homecare techniques, it can be impossible to remove debris, bacteria and deposits from gum pockets. The experienced eye of a dentist or qualified Hygienist using specialized dental equipment is needed in order to spot and treat problems such as tartar and plaque buildup.
Aesthetics – It’s hard to feel confident about a smile marred by yellowing, stained teeth. Prophylaxis can rid the teeth of unsightly stains and return the smile to its former glory.
Fresher breath – Periodontal disease is often signified by persistent bad breath (halitosis). Bad breath is generally caused by a combination of rotting food particles below the gum line, possible gangrene stemming from gum infection, and periodontal problems. The removal of plaque, calculus and bacteria noticeably improves breath and alleviates irritation.
Identification of health issues – Many health problems first present themselves to the dentist. Since prophylaxis involves a thorough examination of the entire oral cavity, the dentist is able to screen for oral cancer, evaluate the risk of periodontitis and often spot signs of medical problems like diabetes and kidney problems. Recommendations can also be provided for altering the home care regimen.
What does prophylaxis treatment involve?
Prophylaxis can either be performed in the course of a regular dental visit or, if necessary, under general anesthetic but this is EXTREMELY rare.
Prophylaxis is generally performed in several stages:
Supragingival (above the gumline) cleaning – The dentist will thoroughly clean the area above the gum line with scaling tools to rid them of plaque and calculus.
Subgingival (below the gumline) cleaning – This is for patients with periodontal disease because the dentist or hygienist is able to remove calculus from the gum pockets and beneath the gum line.
Root planing - This is the smoothing of the tooth root by the dentist or hygienist to eliminate any remaining bacteria. These bacteria are extremely dangerous to periodontitis sufferers, so eliminating them is one of the top priorities of the dentist.
Medication - Following scaling and root planing, an antibiotic is occasionally prescribed either as pills or a mouthwash.
X-ray and examination – Routine X-rays can be extremely revealing when it comes to periodontal disease. X-rays show the extent of bone and gum recession, and also aid the dentist in identifying areas which may need future attention.
Prophylaxis is recommended twice annually as a preventative measure, but may be performed every 3-4 months on patients who may have difficulty keeping things clean. Though gum disease cannot be completely reversed, prophylaxis is one of the tools the dentist can use to effectively halt its destructive progress.
If you have questions or concerns about prophylaxis or periodontal disease, please ask your dentist.